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Wednesday, May 5, 2010

Anthurium Growth and Flowering

The plants are affected by variation in different environmental factors as well as due to effect of growth substances.

A. Anthurium Environmental factors.
The main important environmental factors are discussed here.

1. Temperature for Anthurium growth
Anthuriums undergo two distinct developmental stages, a juvenile phase (with only vegetative buds in the axil) and a generative phase. The flower buds produced in the axils of leaves during the generative phase remain dormant after initiation and develop into flower, depending upon the dormancy breaking. Unfavourable environmental conditions during this phase can damage the flower bud before normal development or remain vegetative. For both A. andreanum, and A. scherzerianum, the optimum temperature for vegetative growth is 18.3 °C. Lower growing temperatures cause spotting on leaves. Higher temperatures (21.1 to 23.9 °C) are. needed to force the plant to initiate flower buds. A temperature below 18.3°C, especially in case of A. scherzerianum markedly reduces the growth of the plants. Temperature requirements for satisfactory flowering of A. scherzerianum in pots were also investigated. Below 15°C leaf production was somewhat slower and the leaves were less stiff whereas above 180 C the flower number and size were generally reduced. The time required for buds to develop into blooms ready for harvest ranged from about 45 to 53 days during May to October and from about 65 to 75 days during December to March.
. Light factor for Anthurium growth and Anthurium flowering
In commercial practice anthuriums are given 80% shade during the summer months. Decreasing the shade does not affect flower production but reduces the stem length and the leaves of plants under 27% shade becomes chlorotic. The largest number of flowers are produced with the least shading but flower quality is better under more shade. Plants from cuttings without the apical bud shows less vegetative growth and does not show a marked response to light intensity. It has been reported that growth rate increases and average flower production rises when plants are shaded so as to receive at least 45% of the available light. The unsuitable growing conditions stimulates the development of abnormal spathe and/or spadix and reduces the productivity of plant.
3. Carbon-dioxide for Anthurium growth
Enrichment of carbon dioxide improves and advances the plant growth (by about 3 weeks) and increased the market value. A concentration of 900 ml/m3 proved more beneficial than 600 ml/m3.

B. Role of growth substances
Certain chemicals are found to be effective on plant, growth. Treatment of plants with PBA, BA or ethephon introduces adventitious buds. Maximum shoot formation is observed with BA followed by PBA and ethephon

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