Story About Agriculture and Environment

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Location: Bekasi, Jawa Barat, Indonesia

Monday, December 21, 2009

Doubts About Agriculture In Indonesia

Indonesia is the most populated country farming. But in this country, the fate of farmers are still very far from the well-being. The small price of crops to make them far from the well-being. They are always being played by middlemen market, this is what makes them receive less results from the sale of crops. No amount of government's role to the peasant farmers also make a living under welfare. Is this called food self-sufficiency? Whereas many farmers still do not enjoy a meal.

Benefits of a Waste

Many people in rural areas in Indonesia who have not understood what it was global warming. This can be seen one of them from the way they treat the waste in the environment. They destroy waste by burning, but this way is not environmentally friendly. The smoke generated from burning the waste can cause pollution which eventually can cause the greenhouse effect. And the trash like the leaves dry, waste food scraps and other organic waste can be used for the manufacture of fertilizers such as compost.
Making compost is very easy to do with the ways:
1. Preparing dried leaves or trash other organic
2. Preparing animal filth if there
3. Cut small pieces of leaves or trash and organic waste is to accelerate the decomposition process
4. Sprinkle the liquid em-4 to provide organic substances in it
5. Stirring it all every day
6. After 1 month, the waste will break down into crumbs as soil
7. Compost can be used.
This method is one small way in which we can maintain an environment to reduce global warming. Stop Global Warming Now ...

Monday, December 14, 2009


Illegal logging is the harvest, transportation, purchase or sale of timber in violation of laws. The harvesting procedure itself may be illegal, including using corrupt means to gain access to forests; extraction without permission or from a protected area; the cutting of protected species; or the extraction of timber in excess of agreed limits.
Illegalities may also occur during transport, such as illegal processing and export; fraudulent declaration to customs; and the avoidance of taxes and other charges.
Illegal logging is a pervasive problem, causing enormous damage to forests, local communities and to the economies of producer countries. Despite the economic importance of trade in timber and forest products, major international timber consumer countries, such as the EU, have no legal means to halt the import of illegally sourced forest products. However, this is due to the circumstance that the identification of illegally logged or traded timber is technically difficult. Therefore, a legal basis for normative acts against timber imports or other products manufactured out of illegal wood is missing. Possible actions to restrict imports cannot meet with WTO regulations of non-discrimination. They must instead be arranged in bilateral agreements (From :

Illegal logging is so much in Indonesia, like in Kalimantan forest. There is nobody care about it. Illegal logging can change the ecosystem life, land trouble,global warming and many more.

Friday, December 11, 2009


Forest destruction, particularly in tropical forests, has increased rapidly in recent decades. Causes and dynamics differ in different regions. In the Amazon, cutting and burning forest for large-scale cattle ranching is the leading cause of deforestation. Colonization programs that bring poor and landless farmers from other areas also have an impact. But extraction of high-value tropical hardwoods such as mahogany often creates the first access to isolated areas. Deforestation follows the opening and paving of roads closely — the rate of increase in forest clearing from road building and road paving in the Amazon is now predictable (see the Institute for Environmental Research in the Amazon and Woods Hole Research Center’s paper on the Brazilian government infrastructure development program, Avança Brasil). Increased soy production is a new threat. In southeast Asia, commercial logging and clearance for plantations, as well as small farmer colonization are important. It is often assumed that increasing population forces the poor to clear forest in order to make a living. This is undoubtedly so in some areas, but much destruction is driven by uncontrolled resource pillage by powerful, often corrupt, elites, with little social benefit, and often with support from international financial institutions. (The Suharto government's distribution of logging concessions to family members and cronies is an example.) No accurate means exist to quantify the contributions of different activities to deforestation in most regions.


Guano (from the Quechua 'wanu', via Spanish) is the excrement (feces and urine) of seabirds, bats, and seals. Guano manure is an effective fertilizer and gunpowder ingredient due to its high levels of phosphorus and nitrogen and also its lack of odor. Superphosphate made from guano is used for aerial topdressing. Soil that is deficient in organic matter can be made more productive by addition of this manure.

Guano consists of ammonia, along with uric, phosphoric, oxalic, and carbonic acids, as well as some earth salts and impurities. Guano also has a high concentration of nitrates.
Currently vast volumes of phosphorus are needed to produce
fertilizer, as it is an essential plant macronutrient. Guano is rich in phosphorus and is an intensely effective phosphorus fertilizer.

The word "guano" originates from the Quichua language of the Inca civilization and means "the droppings of sea birds". Incas collected guano from the coast of Peru for use as soil enricher. The Incas assigned great value to guano, restricting access to it and punishing any disturbance to the birds with death.
Guano has been harvested over several centuries along the coast of Peru, where islands and rocky shores have been sheltered from humans and predators. The Guanay Cormorant has historically been the most important producer of guano; its guano is richer in nitrogen than guano from other seabirds. Other important guano producing species off the coast of Peru are the Peruvian Pelican and the Peruvian Booby.[citation needed]
The high concentration of nitrates also made guano an important
strategic commodity. The War of the Pacific (1879 to 1883) between the Peru-Bolivia alliance and Chile was primarily based upon Bolivia's attempt to tax Chilean guano harvesters and over control of a part of the Atacama Desert that lies between the 23rd and 26th parallels on the Pacific coast. The discovery during the 1840s of the use of guano as a fertilizer and saltpeter as a key ingredient in explosives made the area strategically valuable.[citation needed]
In this context the US passed the
Guano Islands Act in 1856 giving citizens discovering a source of guano the right to take possession of unclaimed land and entitlement to exclusive rights to the deposits. However, the guano could only be removed for the use by citizens of the United States.[2] This enabled US citizens to take possession of unoccupied islands containing guano.
By the end of the 19th century, the importance of guano declined with the rise of artificial fertiliser, although guano is still used by
organic gardeners and farmers.

The ideal type of guano is found in exceptionally dry climates, as rainwater drains the guano of nitrates. Guano is harvested on various islands in the Pacific Ocean (for example, the Chincha Islands) and in other oceans (for example, Juan de Nova Island and Christmas Island). These islands have been home to mass seabird colonies for many centuries, and the guano has collected to a depth of many metres. In the 19th century, Peru was famous for its supply of guano.
Bat guano is usually mined in caves and this mining is associated with a corresponding loss of
troglobytic biota and diminishing of biodiversity. Guano deposits support a great variety of cave-adapted invertebrate species, which rely on bat faeces as their sole nutrient input. In addition to the biological component, deep guano deposits contain local paleoclimatic records in strata that have built up over thousands of years, which are unrecoverable once disturbed.
The greatest damage caused by mining to caves with extant guano deposits is to the bat colonies themselves. Bats are highly vulnerable to regular disturbance to their roosts. Some species, such as
Phyllonycteris aphylla, have low fat reserves, and will starve to death when regularly disturbed and put into a panic state during their resting period. Many species will drop pups when in panic, with subsequent death, leading to a steady reduction in population. Research in Jamaica has shown that mining for bat guano is directly related to the loss of bat species, associated invertebrates and fungi, and is the greatest threat to bat caves on the island.

In agriculture and gardening guano has a number of uses, including as: soil builder, lawn treatment, fungicide (when fed to plants through the leaves), nematicide (decomposing microbes help control nematodes), and as composting activator (nutrients and microbes speed up decomposition).

(From :

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